History of the English Language
- 1 History of the English Language, 2nd Edition by Seth Lerer
- 1.1 Lecture 7: The Old English Worldview
- 1.2 Lecture 8: Did the Normans Really Conquer English?
- 1.3 Lecture 9: What did the Normans do to English?
- 1.4 Lecture 10 Chaucer's English
- 1.5 Lecture 11 Dialect Representations in Middle English
- 1.6 Lecture 12 Medieval Attitudes toward Language
- 1.7 Lecture 13
- 1.8 Lecture 14
- 1.9 Lecture 15
- 1.10 Lecture 16
History of the English Language, 2nd Edition by Seth Lerer
Lecture 7: The Old English Worldview
- bone locker
- middle Earth (Tolkien)
Kenning noun metaphor that exppresses a familiar idea
- road of the whale - the sea
- road of the swan
- bath of the gannett
- sea steed - ship
going about weaver - the swift moving one - spider in OE
- West Saxon version
- Known as the first English poem
Lecture 8: Did the Normans Really Conquer English?
Shift from an inflected language into an uninflected one
Emphasis of archaeolinguistics based on the barely literate. What are they writing so as to capture the daily change of language over time. Linguists look for writing that can be dated and localized.
- example: Peterborough Chronicle showing changes over time through the years
"word horde" is kenning for mind, so unlocking one's word horde is to speak one's mind (example from Beowulf)
Sound changes hl-, hr-, hn-, and fn- level out to l-, r-, n, and sn-
Compression of syllables occurred in such terms as hlaf weard, the guardian or warden of the loaf, which was shortened to become Lord.
"Who is the guardian of the loaf? The hlfaf weard << The hlaweard << the laword << the lord. This is the etymology of the word lord. Lord is the guardian of the lord, the mete-er out of bread in a cereal society."
metathesis (/mɪˈtæθɪsɪs/; from Greek μετάθεσις, from μετατίθημι "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence. Most commonly, it refers to the interchange of two or more contiguous sounds, known as adjacent metathesis or local metathesis:
- ask / aks in modern English (Southern US)
- brid / bird
- axion / ask
- thork / through
- The Old English beorht "bright" underwent metathesis to bryht, which became Modern English bright.
The Owl and the Nightingale
- early middle-English poem c. 1200 in 2 handwritten manuscripts from 13th c.
- octosylabic rhymed couplets
- Old English words held in a francophone container (French style poetic structure)
Lecture 9: What did the Normans do to English?
Words borrowed for two reasons
- vacant slots with no native words
English words for animals in the countryside, but the words for cooked meats are French
Trilingualism: English, French, Latin
Lecture 10 Chaucer's English
This lecture presents the central features of Chaucer's English. Its goal is not only to address a particular period in the history of the language (or even in the history of literature) but to allow you to recognize and appreciate the force of Chaucer's poetry and its indelible impact on English linguistic and literary history.
Lecture 11 Dialect Representations in Middle English
Lecture 12 Medieval Attitudes toward Language
- Alexander Gill
- Polysemy the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.